Ten key success factors of the most popular cross

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The ten key success factors of Inter Organizational Information Systems (IOS) are shared information systems that span organizational domains and benefit all participants. IOS is an information system developed by enterprises and other organizations in the external environment, such as downstream manufacturers, related enterprises, and even competitors, to obtain competitive advantages. This cooperation system breaks through the existing entity operation scope of the organization. Therefore, it is bound to be different from the traditional enterprise information system, and there are the following risks:

technical risk: the technical risk of developing IOS application software is great

competition risk: the implementation of IOS will not only affect an enterprise, but also cause changes in the operation mode and the relationship between organizations. It will also cause changes in the competitive power or mode in an industry or region

regulatory risk: the subjects implementing IOS are faced with legal risks related to the integrity and security of data exchanged through IOS

organizational risk: changes in one element (structure, control system, personnel and information resources) in the organization will cause changes in other elements, so IOS will naturally affect the structure, system and personnel

because there are so many risks, the implementation of IOS is more challenging both in terms of early selection and preparation and in terms of the implementation process itself. The purpose of the critical success factors (CSFs) analysis method is to find the key behaviors that lead to success. From the perspective of management driven, this paper analyzes the CSFs implemented by IOS from the strategic decision-making level, management level, implementation level and technology level from top to bottom

1. CSFs at the strategic decision-making level

csf1: strong internal and external stimulation

the motivation for strategic change usually comes from four aspects: pressure from partners, competition, developed technology, and internal demand for efficiency improvement

here, as a company driving IOS projects, its motivation is mainly based on long-term strategic planning, usually stimulated by the strong external competitive environment. In order to maintain its advantage in the competition, the company needs to change the organizational structure and improve organizational efficiency, and then has the intention to implement IOS

generally speaking, the implementation of IOS is of value to every company, so it is necessary for every participant to promote the implementation of IOS. However, the distribution of benefits is not equal. If a participant refuses or hesitates to join, the companies that benefit the most will urge them to join. This is the external motivation from the collaborators

it can be seen that the motivation of the company to participate in the implementation of IOS mainly comes from the internal and external. Different motives make the jaws equipped for the tensile test divided into flat jaws and round jaws. Each company plays different roles in the process of participation. The company that is about to obtain the maximum benefit will play the role of driver, take on the role of organization implementation and supervision, while other companies will play the role of responder. This clear division of labor can effectively reduce the conflict between partners, and avoid the lack of cooperation or the breakdown of cooperation relationship due to uneven distribution of interests

csf2: clear and consistent business objectives

many studies have proved that coordinated objectives are an important part in determining the success of IOS. The IOS project involves multiple organizations and is large in scale. Therefore, before the IOS project starts, the partners must fully communicate and reach an agreement on the framework and objectives of the whole IOS implementation, so that the whole implementation process can always be around the center without deviating from the set wishes. If no consensus is reached on the objectives, too many differences may be caused during the implementation process, which will delay the whole process and increase the risk of failure. Therefore, this is also a powerful factor in the implementation of IOS

II. CSFs at the organizational management level

csf3: partner selection, effective communication, full understanding and mutual trust

since IOS is based on the cooperation relationship between organizations, enterprises must consider the cooperation degree of partners and the cooperation type between organizations as the decision-making basis for implementing the system. The problem of unequal interests in IOS has been mentioned above. Most of the responders implement IOS at the request of the drivers. If there is a big gap in the willingness and degree of implementation, the system benefits will not be brought into play. In addition, the degree of internal automation of trading partners should also be taken into account. If there is a mature automation environment, the willingness to cooperate in the implementation of IOS is relatively high; On the contrary, not only will the implementation be low, but also resistance may occur. Another consideration related to trading partners is the type of cooperation between organizations. Before implementing IOS, enterprises should first understand the long-term cooperation or project cooperation with trading partners. For long-term cooperation, because there are continuous transactions, IOS can be used to improve each other's operation and management efficiency; However, the project cooperation only cooperates in a specific period and has no intention of establishing a long-term relationship. It is not applicable to IOS with standardized processes. Therefore, in order to give full play to the benefits of IOS, enterprises should have an in-depth understanding of the cooperation degree of their trading partners and the form of Inter Organizational cooperation as a decision-making reference for the implementation of the system

csf4: high end management with insight and foresight

senior managers also play an important role in the implementation of IOS. Whether managers can feel the impact of information technology on the enterprise, and whether they can recognize the importance of information technology to organizational performance will affect the decision-making of implementing IOS. If managers can have an insight into the future trend and market trend, and recognize that information technology will change the partnership between organizations, they will certainly give full support to the application of information technology inside and outside the organization and the implementation of IOS

csf5: sufficient research and coordination within the organization

ios involves the business of multiple departments within the organization, so the separation between departments should be removed, and communication and coordination should be strengthened, so that information can flow smoothly within the organization. Therefore, when an enterprise implements IOS, it must first measure whether it has an integrated and standardized environment, and promote the coordination and integration ability between departments

in addition, the organization's acceptance of new things and its understanding of IOS will also affect the implementation of the system. Generally speaking, the obstacles to the implementation and promotion of IOS lie in the fact that enterprises cannot perceive new things outside, do not accept innovation well, and do not have enough knowledge of IOS. Therefore, before implementing IOS, enterprises must measure the organization's acceptance of innovation, organize training, and try to make the organization understand the operation of IOS, as well as the possible benefits and impacts

csf6: Business Process Reengineering

the implementation of any information system project will be a revolution, changing the company from many aspects, especially the business process. Cross organizational business process reengineering is an indispensable part of IOS projects. It requires that internal business processes be open and standardized to achieve the docking of business processes between the two companies. Cross organizational business process reengineering in IOS usually requires joint design and cooperation between two companies

III. CSFs at the implementation process level

csf7: cross organizational, cross functional management and implementation team

according to the characteristics of IOS, the implementation of IOS requires a cross organizational implementation team to ensure the smooth implementation. This team should have considerable skills and be composed of personnel from different departments of different organizations. It can generally be divided into the following parts: 1. Executive support, which leads the whole project to proceed according to the established direction and directly manages other parts; 2. The program manager shall be responsible for coordination in the whole process to minimize various conflicts and ensure the orderly and smooth progress of the project's 30t or more electro-hydraulic servo universal material testing machine compared with the electronic universal testing machine; 3. The commercial team, composed of personnel from the commercial department, is responsible for the parts related to commercial activities in the project, such as defining optimized processes, supplementing and summarizing experience from previous systems, etc; 4. System developers have accumulated rich experience in the previous implementation, and have the ability to program, integrate and test the system. Generally, they should ensure that no other word documents are opened and are composed of experienced technical solution providers' staff and consultants

csf8: high integration with internal information systems

implementing IOS between two companies is not the ultimate goal of any IOS project. The fundamental purpose of IOS is to realize the smooth transmission of data and information between the two companies. Inevitably, the success of IOS depends on at least two systems, one for inputting information and the other for utilizing information. IOS can only realize data exchange, and the purpose of data exchange is to make better use of data. Only the internal information system can realize the commercial value of data. Therefore, only when IOS is highly integrated with internal information systems can the potential value of IOS be realized. After all, the value created by IOS, such as faster response time and better data integration, is a direct reflection of the company's internal operating results rather than the result of IOS

IV. CSFs at the infrastructure and technical level

csf09: Advanced legacy information systems and infrastructure

the performance of legacy systems and infrastructure has a critical impact on the difficulty and results of IOS implementation. Having the necessary IT capabilities can reduce risks and benefit more from IOS projects (premkumar and ramamurth generally say that the gap of trapezoidal screw is relatively large y, 1995). As a strategic application, IOS needs a certain operating environment, such as basic database, internal information system, network, server, etc. The complexity of IOS determines the need for an experienced project manager and project team

drivers have strong competitiveness in the industry. They usually have a mature foundation and sufficient technical force to implement IOS. In contrast, the situation of responders or followers is different. This is an important issue that drives the selection of appropriate target partners

csf10: shared industrial standard

for companies in the same supply chain, it is particularly important to select the same standard when implementing IOS. At present, there are some industrial standards that can meet the requirements, such as EDI in the early stage, WBI standard now, ebXML standard, RosettaNet, etc. these standards are also constantly improving with the development of information technology applications. The driver can choose a widely accepted standard, or continue to follow the standard that has been successfully implemented with other partners. Responders usually accept the criteria proposed by the driver. (end)

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